Question: What Is 44th Amendment?

What does Article 21 of the Indian Constitution say?

No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law, nor shall any person be denied equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India..

What changes were made by the 44th Amendment Act with regard to the President of India?

Right to Property was removed from the list of fundamental rights (Article 31) and was made a legal right under Article 300A. Proclamation of Emergency can be issued only when the security of India or any part of its territory is threatened by war or external aggression or by armed rebellion.

What is the 24th Amendment in simple terms?

Not long ago, citizens in some states had to pay a fee to vote in a national election. This fee was called a poll tax. On January 23, 1964, the United States ratified the 24th Amendment to the Constitution, prohibiting any poll tax in elections for federal officials.

Which right has been abolished by 44th Amendment?

In 1978, the Constitution (44th) Amendment Act was passed by the then ruling Janata Party, repealing the right to property accorded to every citizen in Article 19(1)(f) and Article 31.

What is the 45th Amendment?

The Forty-fifth Amendment of the Constitution of India, officially known as The Constitution (Forty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1980, extended the period of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and representation of the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies for …

What was Article 42?

Any citizen of the Union, and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State, has a right of access to documents of the institutions, bodies, offices and agencies of the Union, whatever their medium.

What did the 24 amendment do?

On this date in 1962, the House passed the 24th Amendment, outlawing the poll tax as a voting requirement in federal elections, by a vote of 295 to 86. At the time, five states maintained poll taxes which disproportionately affected African-American voters: Virginia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Texas.

Which fundamental right has been removed?

The right to property was removed as a fundamental right in 1978, and the right to privacy has been recently added. There are safeguards against arbitrary arrest and detention. Articles 23-24 | Deal with the right against exploitation.

Why is the 42nd amendment called the mini constitution?

It was enacted by Indian National Congress headed by Indira Gandhi then. Due to the large number of amendments this act has brought to the Indian Constitution, it is also known as ‘Mini-Constitution. … It will also define the relationship between the 42nd Amendment Act 1976 and the 44th Amendment Act 1978.

What is the difference between Article 21a and Article 45?

Article 21a is guaranteed as fundamental right but article 45 is directive principle of state policy. *. Article 21 provides that the state shall provide free and compulsary education to children between 6-14 years of age.

Which amendment curtailed right to property?

Twenty-fifth AmendmentThe Twenty-fifth Amendment of the Constitution of India, officially known as The Constitution (Twenty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1971, curtailed the right to property, and permitted the acquisition of private property by the government for public use, on the payment of compensation which would be determined by the …

What is 123rd Amendment?

The Bill was passed superseding the amendments by the Rajya Sabha which seeks to grant constitutional status to the National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC). … All 406 members present in the House voted in favour of it.

What is the Article 45?

– For article 45 of the Constitution, the following article shall be substituted, namely:- . Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years. … The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.”.

What is the 100th amendment?

The bill proposed to amend the 1st schedule of the constitution to exchange the disputed territories occupied by both the nations in accordance with the 1974 bilateral LBA. Key features of Land Boundary Agreement.

What words are in the preamble 42nd Amendment?

Amendment of the Preamble The 42nd Amendment changed the description of India from a “sovereign democratic republic” to a “sovereign, socialist secular democratic republic”, and also changed the words “unity of the nation” to “unity and integrity of the nation”.

What is the 44th Amendment of Indian Constitution?

The Forty-fourth Amendment of the Constitution of India, officially known as the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, was enacted by the Janata Party which had won the 1977 general elections campaigning on a promise to “restore the Constitution to the condition it was in before the Emergency”.

What are the two aims of 42nd constitutional amendment?

The two aims: To lower the authority of supreme court and high court for the validity of constitutional laws. It made the use of the power fundamental duties by the people of India to the nation.

Can the preamble be amended?

It has been clarified by the Supreme Court that being a part of the Constitution, the Preamble can be subjected to Constitutional Amendments exercised under article 368, however, the basic structure cannot be altered. Therefore it is considered as the heart and soul of the Constitution.